|Methods of Measurements
Methods of measurements and counts generally
followed Nakabo (2002). For the fin formulae, the numbers
of spinous and soft fin rays are described by Roman numerals
(I, II, III, ......) and Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, ......),
respectively. The unbranched soft rays are sometimes expressed
in small Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, ......). Spinous fin
rays are generally called spines. In the case of the dorsal
or anal (sometimes pectoral or pelvic) fins containing spines
and soft rays, the numbers of spines and soft rays are separated
by a comma. When the dorsal (or anal) fin consists of two
or more fins (i.e. first dorsal fin, second dorsal fin,
......), each fin is separated by a hyphen. Gill rakers
on the fist gill arch on the right side of the body are
used for counting. Numbers of gill rakers on the upper and
lower limbs are separated by a "+" sign. When
present, the one or more gill rakers between the limbs are
included in the lower limb. The arrangement of fishes in
this book follows the ordering system of Nelson (1994),
with minor modifications.
A (number of anal fin rays).
D (number of dorsal fin rays).
GR (number of gill rakers).
LGR (number of gill rakers on lower limb).
LL (number of lateral line scales): number of scales on lateral
line from the scale behind the posttemporal to the caudal
LLp (number of pored scales on lateral line): only the number
of pored scales on lateral line is counted.
LR (number of scales in longitudinal row): number of scales
in longitudinal row from the end of the opercular membrane
to the caudal fin base.
P1 (number of pectoral fin rays).
P2 (number of pelvic fin rays).
PDS (number of predorsal scales): number of scales on the
dorsal midline from the origin of dorsal fin forward to occipital
SL (standard length): linear distance of from most anterior
point of upper lip (or snout) with mouth closed to caudal
fin base (posterior end of hypurals, roughly where fold formed
by bending caudal fin).
TL (total length): greatest linear distance between most anteriorly
projecting part of head with mouth closed and farthest tip
of caudal fin when caudal rays squeezed together.
VN (number of vertebrae): counts of vertebrae from behind
the cranium to the urostyle.